more from the
Jan/Feb 2016 issue:
Letters from the Editors
– Victoria Camblin
– Ryan Gravel
of an Airport
– Reinier de Graaf
Notes from the
Edge of the Atlanta Airport
– Hannah Palmer
Art on MARTA (part 2)
Text: John Crocker
Images: David Naugle
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LETTERS FROM THE EDITORS
— Victoria Camblin & Ryan Gravel
1. The ancient Romans worshipped a god called Terminus, who protected (and inhabited) boundary markers. On February 23
(the Roman equivalent of New Year's Eve), a "Terminalia" festival took place in his honor: offerings of wine, honey,
and blood were made to sanctify stones and corridors at which different properties converged—a foundation ritual of yearly
renewal, which endowed the space of the boundary and the objects that mark it with a kind of animistic power. In transportation,
"terminus" is what we call a train or bus station serving as an end destination, the nature of which is something of a paradox:
as an end, the terminus is the point at which there is nowhere left to go, a place of stasis; as a destination, and as a boundary
zone endowed with power by its markers, it is pregnant, a place of promise. The city of Atlanta developed around the "zero milepost"
that Western and Atlantic Railroad engineers drove into the ground in the 1830s at what is now Five Points, and for years the settlement
was known as "Terminus." In other words, Atlanta is a place built around its transportation infrastructure, not the other way around.
ART PAPERS was founded in Atlanta in 1976, during a decade of particularly energetic regional and national growth both for the art
and art publishing communities (Nexus Press, internationally known for its artists' books, was founded locally in 1974; New York's
Printed Matter shares a birth year with ART PAPERS) and for the transportation industry (the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority
was formed in 1971; Massimo Vignelli's iconic identity design for the New York City subway system, discussed here on page 59, debuted in 1970).
Similar transformations are afoot today, as artist-pioneers continue to extend the frontiers of our cities, and as public demand for car
alternatives grows, encouraging environmentally conscious transportation initiatives such as transit greenways—corridors that bring pedestrians
and cyclists closer to their surroundings, and in turn beg for cultural and arts programming.
It is with this history and these new discussions in mind that ART PAPERS begins our 40th anniversary year, and launches a special edition of our magazine
"Terminus," named for and devoted to the force of our home city's transportation legacy, and its impact on art, design, and the
urban plan. For this January/February issue, we have been honored to collaborate with guest co-editor Ryan Gravel, an urban designer,
author, and the creator of Atlanta's Beltline, a highly ambitious transit greenway logistically, socially, and culturally. Continuing
ART PAPERS' recently rebooted tradition of not only guest edited, but guest designed architecture and design-oriented issues, graphic
designer John McCusker joins us here to create the visual identity for this special edition, bringing with him an interest in working
at the intersection of art and architecture. "Terminus," similarly, seeks to apply ART PAPERS' singular critical lens as a contemporary
art publication based in a milieu dominated not by contemporary art but by logistics and development industries, to the very global
question of how we move ourselves and our materials through space—and how we might evolve these processes to enrich our lives, sustainably.
In Eyal Weizman's Roundabout Revolutions (Sternberg Press, 2015), excerpted here on page 49, major circular traffic intersections are shown
to be places of protest, internationally—unlikely catalysts for social change. Reinier de Graaf's "The Possibility of an Airport," inspired
by research he undertook in 2015 with architecture students at the University of Pennsylvania, positions Atlanta's Hartsfield-Jackson (ATL)
as the prime airport, a perfect case study in the fundamental nature of such facilities. Writer Hannah Palmer, meanwhile, grew up in the
shadow of the ATL runway, and sheds light on the social impact of airport growth in her essay "Achieving Blankness" (page 11)—just one
account of the "placenessness" with which Atlanta has been associated, ostensibly, since the "zero mile" post pierced the Georgia earth.
As Terminalia rolls around this February, we hope you will join us in contemplating, celebrating, and perhaps reclaiming the transient
spaces "in between": roads and thoroughfares that have come to act as divisions, but that should and can be places of dialogue, convergence,
We owe our deepest thanks to the Graham Foundation for Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts for their generous support of this special program,
as well as to the Jamestown Charitable Foundation, and the architects at Cooper Carry, Inc.
2. I learned how to be a pedestrian during a year abroad in Paris. Mona, a visual arts instructor and guide for our group of
students, would walk directly into traffic as if she had as much right to the street as the cars that were swerving around her.
She did, of course, but for me, a 22-year-old kid from the suburbs of Atlanta, hers was a new, exhilarating, and even liberated kind of walking.
She was partly playing the role of the flaneur, a conscious actor in the theater of the city—a "passionate spectator"
according to Charles Baudelaire. In the mid to late 1800s, the flaneur strolled thoughtfully along the city streets, offering
observations and commentary about the built environment, and by doing so, helped define the new lifestyle offered by Napoleon III's
grand boulevards and the epic transformation of Paris. She was partly playing the role of the situationist, who a century later criticized
this lifestyle, while decrying the city's destruction in their own time. To them, the bourgeois environment of the flaneur was only the
beginning of a capitalist appropriation of Paris. Through their late 19th century pedestrian-oriented dérive and other spectacles and
experiments, the situationists challenged the status quo, pushing back on excessive roadway construction and similar modern city-building
efforts, and in the very legitimacy of city-planning practice itself.
She was partly, however, just dealing with the reality of the time: like almost any Western city in the mid-1990s, Paris had been significantly
altered by its long affair with the automobile. Its physical condition reflected a cultural shift toward driving cars and the space needed to
accommodate them. Ancient cities like Paris had required significant modifications to do so, but cities like Atlanta were more malleable. They
had only been around for 80 years or so by the time automobiles began to transform American life.
Even here, however, the degradation of the pedestrian realm that later necessitated my training from Mona took time. It came through a series of
contests for control of the physical space of the street. A notable casualty in Atlanta was Margaret Mitchell, author of Gone with the Wind, who
died of injuries from being hit as a pedestrian by a car in 1949. That was the same year the last streetcar was torn from the city's streets.
For the remainder of the century, freed from annoyances like people and trolleys, Atlanta was built almost entirely around cars and the roadways
required to drive them.
Because cars prevailed in similar contests everywhere, many cities not only forgot how to accommodate pedestrians, but they often made walking a
crime. Consider the tragic story of Raquel Nelson, a 30-year-old, carless mother of three who was headed home to her apartment outside Atlanta in
the summer of 2011. She was loaded with groceries and her kids were exhausted, so rather than walk half a mile out of her way to the nearest crosswalk
and back along a boulevard of sprawl, she jaywalked across five lanes of traffic. When her son ran ahead and was killed by a hit-and-run driver who
had had a few beers mixed with painkillers, it was Nelson, not the motorist, who was charged with vehicular homicide.
Although she was eventually cleared of charges, Nelson's story sheds light on the trap of our car-dependency. Vast expanses of our physical
environment reflect a legal structure and a set of social values that place the driver's convenience above a child's life.
Similar evidence of how we value cars more than people can be found just about anywhere, and while there are valid counter-arguments emerging
even in Atlanta, the fact remains that most of our resources still go to the cultivation of conditions that punish people who don't drive—often
a proxy for low-income or otherwise disenfranchised communities.
Under construction just a few miles from Nelson's tragedy, for example, is the Northwest Corridor project. At a cost of nearly $1 billion, this
30-mile reversible toll lane follows I-75 northwest of Atlanta. Without companion growth policy to ensure it works as designed, the project can
only induce more car traffic. In addition to that, its utility is limited to motor vehicles: no walking, biking, or skating is allowed there; no
discussion of its impact on our health or economy; no dialogue about equity or its impact on how people live.
Far from fulfilling the dreams we have for our lives, investments like these only emphasize the challenges to rebuilding our cities for people.
So it is particularly refreshing to also find momentum behind the Atlanta Beltline and similar projects that are inherently inclusive and that
actively engage and even celebrate dialogue about who benefits from their construction, and how. For roughly the same cost as the Northwest Corridor,
we could build transit around most of the Atlanta Beltline. That's not happening yet, but even so, we can see how the concept is already driving much
more life-affirming outcomes in our economy, health, and mobility—all despite a more modest investment.
Even more importantly, in addition to their nascent utility for nonvehicular forms of transportation today, catalyst infrastructure projects all
over the country, including the Atlanta Beltline, are already changing the way car-cultural natives think about the places we live, and the decisions
we make about living there. They are highlighting realistic design solutions that are capable of changing transportation habits in cities across
America and others worldwide, and ultimately, this will enable much more comprehensive changes in the way we build cities.
That's the thinking that intersected with my pedestrian training and became the seed for the Atlanta Beltline. The close-in communities of Atlanta
had been overrun by cars for generations but had only decline to show for it. As a catalyst for change, this obsolete loop of old railroads would
be reimagined entirely and would revitalize that territory for people. It started, that simply, as I happened to be reading Rem Koolhaas' "Toward
the Contemporary City" in Design Book Review (1989):
"The contemporary city ... ought to yield a sort of manifesto, a premature homage to a form of modernity, which when compared to cities of the past
might seem devoid of qualities, but in which we will one day recognize as many gains as losses. Leave Paris and Amsterdam—go look at Atlanta,
quickly and without preconceptions."
A hopeful and honest rethinking of the mess we have created, not only in Atlanta but almost everywhere, is our only real hope for the future.
And while the scale and complexity of the change that is needed will take time, the ultimate result will be a new kind of city that we might not
have generated otherwise. It will include traditional physical infrastructure for travel along sidewalks, bikeways, and transit, and it will take
advantage of ongoing technological innovation in car-sharing, vehicle automation, and managed transportation networks. Whatever kind of places we
create in the process, the essential idea that we must absolutely maintain is that the purpose of cities—even Atlanta—is to support the joyful and
varied lives of people.